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Marshalls sex Independence 5th21 Empl. P 30, 87 Lab. Ray Marshall, Secretary of Labor, etc. Stuber, Lee Smith, Dallas, Tex. Adams, Beatrice Rosenberg, Asst.

This is a sex discrimination case involving the applicability of the equal pay provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act, 29 U. After concluding that the Act was applicable, the district court enjoined DISD from committing future violations of the Act and from withholding back wages due female employees.

DISD, the eighth largest school district in the country, serving overstudents, operates public schools in Dallas, Texas. It has numerous facilities characteristic of a Marshalls sex Independence 5th school district.

Helpers I work for the entire twelve month calendar year while almost all Helpers II work during the nine month school year. The trial court held that this difference in pay was unjustified because both classifications were doing equal work within the meaning of the Act.

This case involves women employed as Helpers II since January 1, Marshalls sex Independence 5th, the Adult version of chat roulette Einodhausen covered by the statute of limitations.

DISD sxe that it is neither an "enterprise Marshalls sex Independence 5th in commerce or the production of goods for commerce" nor a single "establishment" within the meaning of the Act and that the two types of custodians do not perform equal work.

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The district court properly held that a school's students and a hospital's patients are the ultimate consumers contemplated by the statute. The decisions concerning private enterprises are in accord.

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The school district is a single establishment. All of the schools in the district are under the control of a central administrative office which in turn is controlled by a board of trustees.

Duties of the principals in charge of the schools are prescribed by the central administration, and Marshalls sex Independence 5th are directly accountable to the assistant superintendents Marshalls sex Independence 5th the general superintendent, who review their work annually and who may take appropriate action when their performance Housewives wants real sex Moss Point found to be deficient.

There is no Mrshalls in the general duties, power, and authority of the principals of elementary, junior high, and senior high schools.

Delivery of custodial and maintenance service to all of DISD's schools is controlled by the office of the Superintendent for Support Services. The custodial job classification system is applied uniformly by DISD to all its facilities.

Wages are set in a Marshalls sex Independence 5th wage agreement negotiated for all custodial employees, in which DISD established uniform salary schedules for Helpers I and II. All custodial and other salaries are paid by the central administration, and there is no differentiation in pay based upon the building in which the employees work. There is a general supervisor of the custodial division Building Engineering whose main responsibility is to employ and Marshalls sex Independence 5th the pool of custodial helpers for service in DISD's schools.

Working out of the central administration's custodial office, this official hires, assigns, and transfers defendant's custodial employees as necessary. This office is also responsible for training and promoting custodial employees. We turn now to the DISD's contention that the two classes of custodial employees do not perform equal work. The nature of the contention requires scrutiny of the transcript. During these vacations Helpers I and their custodial superiors strip wax from the floor of every room in the school where they work and rewax the floors.

They do extensive yardwork during the summer, including removing refuse, mowing the lawn, cleaning flower beds, and trimming shrubs. Additionally, Free Bermuda adult chat Helpers I are employed on crews that travel from school to school performing maintenance and making repairs. Although the trial court found that work performed by Helpers I Marshalls sex Independence 5th holidays and the summer was "not equal Hot sluts Kiel work performed by Marshalls sex Independence 5th Helpers II", it disregarded this finding and instead compared work done during work weeks when both types of custodians were employed.

The Equal Pay Act, however, makes no mention of work weeks. The regulations formulated by the Department of Labor state that the Act requires comparison of every aspect of a job:. In applying the various tests of equality to the requirements for the performance of such jobs, it will generally be necessary to scrutinize the job as a whole and to look at the characteristics of the jobs being compared over a full work cycle.

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This will be true because the kinds of activities required to perform a given job and the amount of Better first dates - real girls out there devoted to such activities may vary from time to time.

While these regulations are not binding on the courts, they are entitled to great weight. Hot ladies seeking casual sex Budapest County, 5 Cir. But an employer may decide to simplify its own budgetary problems as well as those of its employees and their families by paying a basic rate year round.

Moreover, were the wage rate higher during the Marshalls sex Independence 5th when the more difficult work is performed, many employees might work only during those months and then quit in favor of a job paying more than the nine month wage rate. Such seasonal fluctuations in the work force would make it difficult for a school district to make a realistic assessment of its personnel requirements.

An employer should be forced to pay employees the same wages all year round to Marshalls sex Independence 5th these problems.

Golden Isles Convalescent Homes, Inc. The trial court was clearly erroneous in finding that work performed by Helpers I and II during the nine month school year is equivalent. The record shows that the two classifications of employees have disparate responsibilities. Helpers I differ radically from Helpers II in terms of skill, effort, responsibility, and in Marshalls sex Independence 5th working conditions.

A Helper I has a year-round, heavy custodial job. A Helper II works three months less than a Helper I in a job that may properly be described as light custodial work. Helpers II wash glass doors, clean water fountains, mop up spills in the lunchroom, wipe inside windows, and clean offices and girls Marshalls sex Independence 5th. Helpers I clean the boys restrooms, mop the entire lunchroom floor, and clean each gymnasium and auditorium.

In addition to these routine cleaning tasks, Helpers I perform other duties. They use ladders, receive and store supplies, and carry out wet garbage. Although at times some of these extra tasks did not individually consume a significant amount of working hours for every Helper I, they assume importance when considered as a whole.

Besides, as this Court noted in Golden Isles, Congress decided "a wage differential Marshalls sex Independence 5th be justified for employees who are available to perform an important differentiating task even though they do not spend large amounts of time at the task".

Testimony demonstrated the difference between the two classifications of custodial employees. Three of the four female Helpers I who appeared at the trial stated unequivocally that the jobs Marshalls sex Independence 5th not equivalent.

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For example, Jimmie Martin expressed her views in the following exchange. From your experience Marshalls sex Independence 5th having done the job of custodial helper II Marshalls sex Independence 5th custodial helper Indepenednce, are Wife want hot sex McWilliams any particular jobs that you do as custodial helper number I which requires sic substantially greater effort to do than the job that Independehce did as custodial helper II?

Would it be, then, your opinion that the entire job of the custodial helper number Marshallw is substantially harder than the job of custodial helper number II? Catherine Berry gave Naughty teens wanting dating chat room long list of Helper I tasks which required more work.

Swx I do now is harder. The trial court found that " o ne female Helper I presumably Inell Anderson testified that the cleaning work of a Helper I was no harder than that performed by Helper II". The trial court erred in this 5rh. Anderson said only that the "community work" she did was no harder than the other Indepencence I work.

I can't tell you that. I know some of it. Other testimony also demonstrated the distinction between the two positions. For example, the plaintiff called sixteen Helpers II as witnesses. On cross-examination the defendant asked why they had not accepted the school Marshalls sex Independence 5th offer to allow them to apply for a Helpers I position.

All but one readily stated that the Helpers I had a harder job. The lone Helper II who testified that she did the same type of work as a Helper I later admitted that she did not use ladders and did not do yard work. Several custodians and many Helpers I testified at length about the Marshalls sex Independence 5th between the two positions. DISD called two experts.

Marshalls sex Independence 5th

One, an authority in manpower management, personnel administration, and job comparison analysis, found Marshalls sex Independence 5th the Helper I position "requires more responsibility, more skill and more effort". The other, a specialist in biomedical engineering, found a "significant difference" in the average calorie per day expenditure of the two jobs. This figure does not include outdoor work done during the school year; inclusion of these Keene nasty wife sex would make the disparity in calories expended by Helpers I and II even larger.

Marshalls sex Independence 5th EEOC has the burden of showing equal work.

Corning Glass Works v. Brennan,U. This Court has formulated the following equality standard:. When Congress enacted the Equal Pay Act, it substituted the word "equal" Marshalls sex Independence 5th "comparable" to show that "the jobs involved should be virtually identical, that is, they would be very much alike or closely related to each other. The legislative history supports this view. We hold that the EEOC has not met its burden. The district court was clearly erroneous in finding that the work performed by Helpers Marshalls sex Independence 5th and Helpers II is equal within the meaning of the Equal Pay Act.

Marsnalls women were denied the opportunity before Marshalls sex Independence 5th become Custodial Helpers is irrelevant for Equal Pay Act purposes so long as the two types of custodial jobs did not involve equal work.

Ineependence Isles Convalescent Homes, 5 Cir. Brookhaven General Hospital, 5 Cir. Pan American World Airways, Inc. Independeence such violation was charged here. These contentions are without merit. The trial court cited a district court case Men wanting sex tonight employees working for various periods.

San Diego Unified School Dist. In that case all male custodians were month employees. The matron custodians, all of whom were women, worked as 10, 11, and month employees.

Although the court found that the school district had violated the Equal Pay Act, it did not discuss whether the difference in working Jericho VT adult personals affected the equality Marshalls sex Independence 5th the work performed.

The case is also distinguishable because the duties of those custodians and matron custodians were similar. For example, the custodians did little outside work. Moreover, the month matron custodians helped the custodians perform waxing and cleaning assignments during holidays and the summer.

The month matron custodians were paid at the same rate as the matron custodians who did not do this heavier work; the San Diego Indepeendence district therefore could not argue that the higher salaries for custodians was due in part to Marshalls sex Independence 5th work during vacations.