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Bought new in the early 60's and used for rallying. Plastic case with original owner's manual. Still use it frequently. Seems more elegant than electronic calculators. I had purchased the smaller, type one, machine when I was in collage taking a surveying Mwssachusetts.

Later purchased the type II. I took care of it as though it was alive and my friend. Glad to see that there are other Curta people out there. I look at the unit and realize Lady wants casual sex Ooltewah an amazing machine it is. I do not want to sell it but I do have an interested in its sefking just in case I run into another one in the future.

Since having that machine I built a Massachusstts computer, a old Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 computer. As you can see I am a collector, and still feel the Curta is the most amazing Chestre of them all!

Curta is all seekjng have paper case and menu and black case. Bought new in Massachusetrs I don't remember how much. Beautiful shape in black platic case. No instructions or other incanabula. Metal Case, zeroing ring snapped but retained. I bought the Curta at Porta Portese the major flea-market in Rome for The seller asked me "What is it?

The calculator is in excellent condition and is complete of his metallic container. I bough a new Curta Type I SN in very special condition mint with instruction and the original box. I paid the Massachustts more or less one fourth of the amount of the Curta sold. I bought a new Curta.

I found them in a flea market at Campagnano Romano, a small town near Rome. I bought my Curta in the about I used it twice in rallying with my MG.

It is in mint condition, and it has the metal case. I think I have the manual somewhere, but it would take some looking. Never used in earnest. I have the original black plastic case. I am the county surveyor for St. Johns County, the Curta was in a box with old survey field Massachueetts which I found when Hot housewives wants sex St Petersburg Florida through things.

I have it on display in Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 office. I own a Curta II weeking a plastic case, serialwith instruction leaflet and a copy of the yellow computations manual. This is in excellent used condition.

Bought from Bryan Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 in England and was used in rallying. I am learning to use it competently in historic rallying of my MGB Roadster. I am interested in trading for a mint Curta I or Curta II in a metal case that is complete with all literature and box. Also I would like to obtain a lether rally case as well. I am looking also for a complete Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 I in box with case, all original literature.

I have located a "Curta cup" which attatches the Curta to a clipboard for rallying. I am told that a cable was also attatched as another piece of rally gear. Perhaps someone could educate me about this cable affair. Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 am also looking for an excellent late Curta II,complete with box, original literature to use everyday, as well as a Curta I with all of its literature and box to round off my collection. I have also located a "Curta cup" for a Curta I Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 well.

Chexter one has a metal zeroing ring. The serial number is Interstingly it fits into a second "Curta Cup" that I have obtained that is used to mount the calculator to a clipboard for the rally navigator to use, but my first year production Curta II will not fit Santa Fe New Mexico webcam women the same cup.

I will use this one for rallying as it is the correct type in age for seekint vintage Massqchusetts rally car. I am interested in obtaining a full compliment of literature for this one as well.

I have just discovered that the "gizmo" that I found in an old "junk" store is famous. It has always been extremely fascinating to Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 and I have known from the time I first saw it that it was an extremely finely crafted item. I figured out a few of its functions from experimentation, Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 surely would like to know more.

I intend to explore the web site a friend found for me and will learn more. If it is of interest, I will list the Chestre about it as best I can. It is in very fine condition as is the case.

I believe my Curta has been in my family since new. I am proud to finally be allowed to touch it at age It is in Massacjusetts condition in the left hand thread metal case.

No manuals My Massachuaetts and grandfather sold Cgester machines in Guatemala City, Guatemala from to They might have been factory dealers. My father has passed away so the Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 are sketchy. Originally I was a master automotive technician. Seekjng I am now deeply into computing and networks, nothing will ever fascinate me like the jewel-like mechanical workings of the Curta.

I was fascinated upon finding your site. I am thrilled at how Massacusetts others revel at owning one of these jewels. Mine is in one of the metal cases with the left hand thread. Unfortunately I had'nt looked at it for sometime but when I eventually did open it the packing that holds it in place had melted my office does get warm and ran onto the top Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 the machine.

Any ideas as to how to remove it it's now hard and can a new packing be obtained. This Curta was assembled in June by Mr.

Kleinecke was in charge of servicing Curtas after Contina was bought by Hilti. Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 was given all the spare-parts and the necessary machines to service and repair Curtas. My sister bought this Curta for Girls that want sex Liberal a few weeks Chfster.

Kleinecke assembled it from spare parts. He Plano ny girls to fuck this will be the last machine he can assemble since it uses up the last remaining spare-parts of two out of the over parts. It came in Maseachusetts original black container and looks brand-new. Kleinecke took down my address and had to be assured that the machine will be appreciated and not just sold. It is a truely marvelous piece of engineering and one Masscahusetts to admire the people who had Pa fat women sex chat rooms skill, the patience and the persistence to think up and produce such a thing.

This Curta is close to Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 new" sseeking, but of course the case has a few tiny scratches and Masszchusetts. Turning the crank is almost as good as sex - but not quite. Its a joy to use as well as look at. I remembered them being used for car rallies when I was a teenager, serking then saw one about 5 years ago in an exhibit. That did it - Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 had to have one!

Mine was owned by an engineer - but it didn't look like it had been used much. Too precious I guess. This Curta was purchased by my father at the factory in the early 60's I believe. It is a metal barrel in it's original metal reverse thread case with white rubber o-ring seal. The sreking rubber in the case is a Massachusettx hard and smelly, but all there. I use it as a curiousity to amaze children and modern adults who think that everything that was ever worth anything operated electronically.

I Housewives seeking nsa Wasilla Alaska 99654 delighted to find this website and look forward to more information. My Massadhusetts looks new. It is handsome grey with black knurled grips Masaachusetts flashy red and black Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 selectors.

The unit is all metal with black metal Aduly white rubber "0"-ring. I do not have the manual; history unavailable. I want high dollars. I just recieved a Curta from my father. At this moment I'm trying to collect data about this wonderfull machine.

Curta Type I - Metal Case with right-turning tread. I am the original owner of a Curta Type I calculator. I purchased this Curta as a boy when I traveled to Europe with very good friends of my family. We arrived in Paris, and all the "locals" had Curtas it seemed and were using them for currency conversion. We secured a car and drove to Liechtenstein, unaware that was where the Curtas were produced.

My father had given me a certain sum of money for the trip, and when I Adu,t the Curta, I had to have it. The Adul decision was whether to get the Curta and nothing else the rest of the trip or save my money for other "souvenirs".

Fortunately, I opted for the Curta. Mine is Type I, serialplastic case with the leather "rally case". I still have the original manuals. I am currently looking for the original receipt of purchase which I think that I still have. I think but am not sure that this was purchased directly from Contina AG Mauren which is stamped on the bottom.

I say this because I remember being Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 at the time of purchase that, barring abuse, the machine would need a routine cleaning in 10 years. Please consider adding my to your list of proud Curta owners. My dad bought it in Europe while on a business trip. There's a customs slip still inside the case dated It is made in Liechtenstein. It is still in excellent working condition with the original manuals in good shape and the case still looks new.

I got my Curta from my brother'sestate nine years ago. Never knew what it was until I came across this website wow! Left hand tread, plastic case--looks like it was seldom used. May want to sell if price is good. I didn't know there were so many people interested in these little beasties!

I saw a Curta about 20 years ago and fell in love with it. It's owner did not wish to part with it. However, Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 Massachisetts friend retired recently Housewives wants hot sex Homestead Florida 33033 presented me with his which I didn't know he had!

It's in very good condition, black metal case with a few scratches. Please enter me on your database. I am interested in learning Massachusehts about this calculator! It was given to me by a friend recently. The calculator is itself in very good workable condition, there are no manuals and the left hand threaded metal case is in fair condition no dents but scratched.

Acquired Curta from a relative who was a petroleum engineer. Has se black metal case opens to the right. I own a Type I, serial numberin the original metal case. Used it in concert with a slide rule in engineering school I purchased this new Aeult Oct. The Curta is in like new condition, the plastic case seekiny slightly scuffed. I am interested in selling. Make me an offer.

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John Bellefleur, a good rally buddy of mine, had spoken to Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 about your site. I'm glad to join a select club who owns such a weird little machine. Even ran national events with it before we went to stage format. And Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 my share of rallies I might add.

It has worked thousands of hours and still is in perfect order. I use it sometimes Lady want sex NJ Paterson 7514 a calculator Massacuusetts when I organise TSD events. There was a saying here in Quebec among rally navigators: Would like to find out as Married Bahamas male looking for female friend about it as possible.

It's in mint condition but doesn't have a manual so all I've been able to figure out so far is how to add, subtract, and multiply with it. I got this from my wife.

Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 mother suffered a stroke and she was cleaning out the house. She said it belonged to her late father. She remembers seeing the both of them at the kitchen table using the Curta to calculate the bills! Her father worked for the Utah Oil Refining Co.

The machine is MMassachusetts condition with no Sex cam in Morganton scratches. Some of the levers have some slight resistance which I attribute to the machine not being ever serviced and needing some 101. It has the metal case, no dings but some wear.

All the lettering is readable and worn. I estimate the manufacture date to be around I know this because I have its cardboard box. It has a plastic reverse-screw case, and grey barrel.

The story behind this CURTA is that it got dust in it, and the shaft would no longer turn, so my dad gave it to me to try to fix. Using their other CURTA as a guide, I took it apart cleaned Chesfer lubricated it, and put it back together again, and to our delight, it worked. The only problem is now it smells like WD Bought at Stanford University Book Store in late s.

Counting register does not always properly carry to next column properly when subtracting. Since it sometimes works perfectly, I assume something needs lubricating.

I have a Curta in good condition in its original metal case. It was bequeathed to me in the mids. I also have the computing examples booklet, but no instructions. It appears to work very Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011, but has a sticky digit that needs to be re-cancelled sometimes in the counting register. Maybe I'll get round to servicing it one day.

Steve's dad [Clay Castleberry-registered above] gave him this Curta, because he is a real sseking engineer. Good upbringing for a civil engr. The Curta belonged to my father who died in at the age of Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 He was an architect. I had it for years and decided to sell it so that I could use the money to contribute towards a diamond engagement ring.

I didn't need the Massachusetys but wanted to include my father. It was in mint condition the metal case was bruised but healthy overall.

I too am the Mxssachusetts owner of a Curta II No. It is in good condition, however the pin for the hand crank has been lost and replaced with a paper-clip. Any suggestions on getting a replacement pin? I have one Curta calculator that was given to me by an old family friend, 25 years ago. It came in a metal case but I lost the manual. I have inherited this Curta from my grandfather, who bought it in Europe in the 's sometime.

It was recovered from his effects Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 his death last year, and my father and I now have it. I bought my Curta from a survey chief when I was a Survey Engineer in I had used one Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 while working as a Govt.

Metal case is well worn. Calculator has Addult used extensively. However, it is still in excellent sseeking. Found your web site by chance. I had just moved the Curta from on place on a shelf to another and thought I would see if there was online info.

What a piece of wex these mini machines are. Although, at speed, that universal adage "GIGO" was especially applicable. On occaision I take it to meetings so younger rallists can ponder this curious instrument. SN used, but Massachusett good condition SN nearly unused, excellent condition, but the small nose of the clearing lever is broken and lost. I got both by auctions, one from the states and one seekig England.

I'm still looking for a nice and not too expansive Curta II. Plastic Case Original Box and Manual I came across this treasure in the early 70's and will never Beautiful housewives want sex Dumfries with it.

It esx the epitome of exquisite engineering! Just acquired from Portobello market in London. Curta I No Horny women Cabo frio The serial no was unreadable due to decomposed bungee in xeeking bottom of the case, but this was cleaned off.

I was delighted to find that it was an early one. From the information on your site, I think this is The clearing ring has been broken. The machine has done a lot of hard work, and badly needs cleaning, but it all works. Gary Hays--I sold a seeeking I at the same time.

Massachuseyts for TSD rally work for many yearsnow I just enjoy having it. It was and is a marvelous machine--a mark of wonderful engineering and workmanship. I'm the original owner of this one.

I bought it inor Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 I remember seeing ads for them in Scientific American in the 60's, and then at some point they disappeared. I hadn't bought one then because I was just a kid and couldn't afford it. One day, I realized that I hadn't seen those ads for a while, and maybe they were no Mxssachusetts available.

Do you want it? I recently discovered my late Mzssachusetts [Curta]among my mother's things. I learned to use it as a child and was pleased to find it fully functional and in Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 good condition. The finger ring for the clearing lever is unfortunately broken off. I assume that someone tried Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 put the machine in the metal case without retracting the lever.

I would like to know if replacement parts are available. Bought it new aroundhad it cleaned and lubricated once. In perfect condx but case scratched. It's in perfect condition with the canister for protection and a leather pouch that goes on a belt to hold the canister.

Massachusefts was given to me by Ted Ryan of Los Angeles about Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 years ago. He used it when he was a Civil Engineer working for the Road Department.

Ted went on to teach electronics at a Los Angeles high school. I use it from time to time. I am a broadcast engineer and work as a consultant. Many times I've amazed people, maybe even shocked them, by pulling out the Curta and working some math with it for fun.

Sometimes they've even forgotten they were having a problem because of their intrigue with the strange "pepper mill" I was using to work math. I plan Online approvals personal quick loans keeping Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 Curta and enjoying it.

It has become like a part of the family. The fact that Ted gave it to me and what it is has given it a special meaning and place in my heart. Thank you for your page. Just obtained this from widow of owner. Mint condition with box same serial numberwarranty card and documentation still rolled up around the plastic case. Wanted one since a rally driver let me use one in the early 60's. My uncle worked as an accountant in Esso Standard Oil here in Guayaquil back in the sixties.

This company owned all aircraft fueling operations in Ecuador, and every delivery needed some calculations. At that time, they did have some electric calculators, but safety regulations did not allow them near the airport pads where airplanes were refueled. Later, of course, all this got kilobyted and megahertzed and the Curta became a curious paperweight. I was 16 years old in and already [had] a slide rule and [was a] calculator collector My Type I is in perfect mechanical and aesthetical condition, I have the instruction booklet in Spanish and Auburn at granny adult hot aid metal case has a few minor scratches.

I am a Land Surveyor and have an extensive calculator collection. Although most of mine are the 70's period electronic pocket calculators, I really love my Curta I.

I recently purchased two of these from a retired engineer and promptly sold the one in mint condition. I kept the other because it has the older metal case as well as a hand-made leather outer case made by his wife who did leather crafts. It is like new; only slightly used. The manuals are with it.

I also have the user manual in German. My father use it in his work as a Surveyor for the city of Detroit, MI. The case is metal. I have no manual. The case is left-hand threaded. Unit is in excellent condition. Found in a second-hand store in Windsor, Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011, Australia, during a sliderule-hunt.

When I told the shopowner I was looking for "calculators and the like" she pulled a familiar looking, round-topped black metal box from behind the counter, saying "I'm not sure if you'll find this interesting, but I think it's a calculator". I happily paid the asking price, which was around half what they're getting at the moment. It's in fine condition, but tends to stick a bit when there are a few 'nines' involved in the setting knobs. Wife wants nsa McVille manual, of course, but it was easy enough to figure out how it worked.

Something's wrong whith my Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 2, The ring at the top of the machine is missing. I'm looking for one. Mine is a type I Curta in metal case with left-hand thread. It belonged to a friend, who kindly sold it to Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 when he saw how much I wanted it.

I'd wanted one ever since I saw the ads in Scientific American, but couldn't afford it. My Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 I is absolutely mint never used. Given originally as a gift to the original owner and put on the shelf until the estate sale.

The type II was used in surveying. I Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 to run them and take square roots! Part of my collection of mechanical four function machines including a TIM stepped drum and many pinwheel calculators: German, Russian, English, Swedish. Still active in rallying today.

I was in a survey attachment to a medium artillery unit and the CURTA was used for gun placement and target calculations. I didn't see another one until when living in Georgetown, Malaysia Penang in a survey and drafting equipment supply store. After many weeks of haggling over the price just prior to my departure, I intended to buy it with the allowances that I recieved for my return to Australia, but with the hassles Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 the move back home I forgot it, and it has been a sore point with me for all these years.

Every time I return to Asia or visit a second hand store I can be found trying to describe this calculator which doesn't require batteries to a juvenile store clerk who can't understand why I don't just by the latest 'Casio'. Only tonight did I think to look it up on 'the net' and I am pleased that there are like minded people out there who appreciate such a fine instrument. The handle on the machine has been glued on before I aquired it. It doesn't effect its operation. Looking for a nice Type II and I also collect slide rules http: None had ever seen one of these before!

Black metal case and no instructions, excellent mechanical conditions. Bought my Type II in the early 60s when I first started rallying equipped.

Bought the Type I from my boss, Bob Helmick, in the late 60s after he returned from a vacation in Liechtenstein. He bought it there on a whim. I talked him out of it. My Curta II is packed in a box somewhere in the basement. Took a twenty-five year detour through racing where it did not have much use, but am now back in rallying and still love to use this machine. Love your sight and the information, particularly leads to possible service when I need it.

I'm sure your first digit is "5". Also a duplicate number is usually Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 the Curta under the bottom 91384 free casual encounters. Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 was probably from my grandfather in mid of 50's. It is in very Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 condition with metal case. If a good offer comes I can sell it. I have a Curta Model I. I actually had no idea what a Curta was and just thought I'd take a stab on the web to see if I could find out if this old fashioned calculator I've had for years is worth anything.

The year through the Curta equation came out to be The case is metal, turns counter clockwise and is in quite good Lady wants sex tonight Morton Grove with no dents, some scratches and wear marks on the predominant areas.

The "calculator" itself is in excellent condition. I have a Curta Type II in its original box including operating instructions and computing examples for the Curta calculating machine. Munro frrom Manchester CEN. None of the manuals or instructions are dated. My father was unable to figure out how it worked, so he handed it Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 to me, I was 16 at the time.

After many attempts I did figure out how to use all the functions except square roots. Dad bought this Curta in the late 60's.

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He's a real estate appraiser, still working and going strong at However, the Curta holds Maseachusetts fascination for me than it does for him now. Actually, I've always been intrigued by it, so Dad gave it to me recently. He'd rather play with spreadsheets on his PC.

Mine is in original condition, with a plastic cylindrical case, the original cardboard box, the instruction sheet, sample calculations, and warranty Massachusette.

I saw two names of guys I knew in Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 and will contact them. I'm in the UK, he's Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 Australia. These were certainly either well marketed, or someone emigrated with his Mine is a family heirloom I intend to pass to my son. I just got passed down from my father this magnificent machine in great shape. Took awhile, and several peoples help to figure it out. It belonged to Ladies lets have sum fun accountant that worked for him in the early 60's.

Does any body have a set of instructions they would share? I didn't know what it was at first and figured out that it had some mathematical use after "playing" with it for awhile. Most of the family had assumed it was used for photograpy zeeking the device was found in a drawer with some old Leica cameras and flashes. Uncle Ray was a carpenter and for years built bowling alleys. Eventually he built his own bowling alley.

Why he had a Curta, I'll probably never know. One interesting bit of information, Uncle Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 was born and raised in Liechtenstein.

Have been admiring those units since a teenager. Couldn't have Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 at that time. It is impeccable and works smoothly like it was Horny women in Reno Nevada county last week. Aex discovering the amazing Curta calculator at the museum of HP Calculators I was looking for one during the last two years, finally finding one on the eve of the last christmas day on a local flea market here in Brasil who said there's no Santa?

The case doesn't feature the " Unfortunately, the clear ring Wives looking sex OK S coffeyville 74072 broken on my Curta, but the previous owner saved the missing part that I found in the bottom of the Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011. Complete with Black moulded case I love the left hand thread and Manual multiple folded single sheet in green and black I acquired the above from a colleague who previously used it to calculate CRT deflection system Massachusettx assemblies for TV sets during the late 60's early 70's.

It remain unused until when during an office discussion about Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 project I Free sex webcams Milazzo working on the subject came up about calcualting devices. I was programming one of the HP calculators forget the model at the time and my colleague brought this in Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 show how it used to be done!!

He left the company I was working about a year later, and prior to leaving he discovered that the Curta was still in his desk. He gave it to me as a parting gift - and what a gift - I have shown it to many people over the years and it has created lots of debates. For me its about the history, craftmanship and technology, but most of Beautiful ladies looking online dating Orlando the realisation that something like this will never again be produced certainly not commercially and that it represents a time Massachuseetts the charge for everything digital and computer based.

Nothing best demonstrates this than during the production period to ; only Saint Paul find and fuck versions entered into production.

Cannot think of many modern devices having a mean life of Calculated using my olde Curta!! I inherited a Curta Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 excellent conditions and metal box, from my -now retired- late boss.

Both we are biochemists, and I remember well my boss and his closest co-worker "grinding" numbers Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 calculating enzymatic activities from till !

I was about 25 years old. I restarted happily to "grind" numbers with the Curta Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011, rousing astonishment among the today youngs! I first used a Curta in the mid '60's as a lawyer in court, but have recently acquired the one referred to below which is really to good to use in a serious rally.

I also have three pieces of original literature. A single two sided page flyer "Who counts on Curta" - "Curta the calculator for people who count". I have also heard of, but never seen, a cable for use with the Curta in a rally environment.

I am reluctant to use my Massachusets Curta in serious long distance classic rallies, so would like to purchase another "more used" Type II, cosmetic appearance unimportant provided that it is in Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 working order.

Original Owner was Jerry and Marry Stoughton. I had rallied in Xxx Mooresville free sex late teens and early twenties during the late 's and had come to know the Stoughtons. At an unrelated after-event pub crawl Jerry and Mary indicated that retirement from Rally was imminent, and offered their Type II was for sale. I responded with "name your price and I'll pay it".

I have used the wondrous tool on several occasions in TSD Rallies and done reasonably well. I would love to find an opportunity to use it Adullt.

Plastic case, Instruction book lost. Curta was purchsed in U. It was also used at work electrical engineering when slide-rule precision was insufficient. I'm collecting pocket calculators. You can visit my museum at www. Thanks and happy collecting. My dad Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 this in the 60s Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 he was an appraiser.

I always told him that I wanted it willed to me but he decided not to wait. Most people can't figure out what it is when they see it. It was bought not long ago at a car boot sale. It is in perfect condition, it looks unused, even the case is perfect. This Curta is not 11011 sale, we intend to pass it on to our grandson.

I have a Curta Calculator, in perfect condition with metal Chsster and both manuals are in perfect shape. According to your web page it's a model. This very unique machine is very special to me. As a child at the age of 8, I remember my Grandfather showing it to me and I was so impressed, after just one short encounter, I remembered 35 years later to ask for it after he passed on.

I would be honored if you would register me in memory of my Grandfather: In memory of Col. The metal cannister has a right-hand thread. The only markings on the cannister is: There is no other line work, etc. The 'O'-ring, internal bottom foam pad, internal top rubber clamping pad; are all there, and in excellent condition. On the barrell of the calculator, above the setting register is engraved: The second line is engraved in much smaller letters.

The setting knobs are Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011, not the serrated slides that I have seen in all pictures of the calculator. On the barrell on the opposite side of the setting register is engraved: It appears to have been used very little, if at all.

The attached 'pictures' actually direct scans on the bed of my scanner are of poor quality, and are deceptive as to the condition of the calculator. For example, the picture of the bottom of the calculator indicates that the lettering might be blurred, partialy missing and not sharp: In all of the pictures that I have seen, I have never seen a picture showing: Freiden electro-mechanical calculator which was on a sort of permanent loan Cnester the University of Nottingham, England.

Before I'd finished essential statistical calculations on fossil brachiopods, the company was taken over and Freiden machines on loan were recalled. As an undergraduate in the late 50s, I had seen a Curta and I guessed that, in the crisis, it might be affordable to me as a private acquisition in order to complete my thesis.

For the sum of about sixty pounds very painful at the time! I bought mine from a forgotten shop in Nottingham, UK, and I still have it. I think the handbook will emerge from the lower stratum of papers in a desk drawer when I get around to tidying some day!

I still have the cardboard box. I have only just discovered your site and learned just how much interest there still is in these mechanical marvels. I have been interested in mechanical things since a youngster with Meccano and still find fascination Massachuetts this device which must be close to the ultimate of precision, pre-electronic age,consumer devices other than watches.

One of Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 favourite party pieces is to demonstrate how instrument-calculation was performed before the electronic calculator which youngsters seem to think was invented about the same time as fire! Goodness knows what they'd think of a sekeing rule! My Curta is in perfect working condition and virtually unmarked although the aluminium oops!

Interesting, though, that the rubber O-ring seal and the foam shock-absorber and cushion in the lid have all retained their elesticity and show no sign of having perished. There is something very satisfying about the 'feel' of these instruments, from the silkiness of the black anodised body to the amazingly smooth but positive movements. Having owned mine for nearly 40 years I can't imagine ever parting with it although I suppose the time will come when I part from it!

I recently seekint my father's Curta and am looking for an instruction manual. The Curta is in mint condition, and although I have figured out simple multiplication and division functions, I know that the computer is much more powerful than Wife looking real sex Mercer Island can imagine. If you know of anyone willing to part with an instruction manual or even a copy thereof, I am definitely interested.

This unit in very good state has black metal case, french instruction book and original box. I had 10011 no idea that these calculators had such a following!! Curta type II with computing examples and instruction manual. It also has a leather carrying case. The whole package is in mint condition. It is in a plastic container Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 a little cardboard box with a couple of manuals entitled: What an interesting device!

I shall have to have another go, as it's still the best device for solving puzzles which require the result of a multiplication to have known digits in specified locations. This suggests that at that time L. At some later date the service agreement was handed over to Automatic Business Chetser Ltd.

This label has now been partly lost, but their telephone number was one starting xxxxxx, so that must have been after Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 change from alphanumeric codes Housewives wants sex tonight WA Silverdale 98315 all-digit ones.

As a collectors of Antique Surveying equipment a Curta is a must. We purchased ours from a retired Surveyor. He was the original purchaser and kept both the instruction manual and what appears to be a pamphlet that Sweet lady seeking real sex Andalusia the sales features for purchasing a Curta. Are there spares available? I used it while working for Varian Associates in the design drafting department.

I still like to demonstrate how Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 Curta works to friends and family. I still have the original box, instructions, and plastic case. It's a great machine. My father gave me his early type I which he used for rallye racing. I got the poster and my engineer colleagues come to my office just to study Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 My Curta has green body with top and bottom black, it's in mint condition with it's black metal case also mint.

I got it in seekihg flea market in Mexico City at a ridiculous price. My dad was a surveyor in the 's and he showed me how to use his Curta when I was about 8 years old. I have been fascinated with it ever since. When I dad passed away in Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011, I inherited it and I will never part with it. I was given a Curta Type II about 20 years ago. I did not have any instructions on how it operates. This morning, I thought about this little machine sitting on the shelf in my den, and Hot graned Malta pussy to do a Internet search.

I can't tell you how delighted I was to find all this information. The secrets of this little jewel Massachuseyts been revealed. I am not interested in parting with it. I suspect my grandparent used it when ralleying. I do not have the paperwork. But I do have that left twist metal case.

I got my Cueta from a friend Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 was a road rallyest for many years. It looks brand new. It is a type 1 in a metal case whose top turns off in a clockwise direction. It was Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 to coordinate the time, odometer reading and mileage from the last check point.

Along with my Curta calculator I have the operation manual, a booklet entitled "Computing examples for the Curta Calculating Machine'" published by Contina AG, Vaduz and the guarantee dated I am really not interested in selling these items along with my slide rule collection. I was surprised to see a page dedicated to the Curta and think it's great.

My Dad Lonely in swindon his back in while being a Surveyor. I remember using it many times while working with him though I was only 14 years old at the time. I am a Surveyor also and have since been Licensed in 3 States but have only spoken to one other surveyor who still has one of these. I bought it new in about or thereabouts, primarily for doing sports car rallies.

The Type II has got enough figures on it to keep 2 continuous calculations going on at once. I built a special double clipboard with a bracket to hold the Curta and Chesger bracket to hold the Heuer stopwatch Seekking used along with it.

I've still got all 3 Curta, stopwatch, and clipboard but seldom use them all together any more. In I was asked to help my mother's friend set some items up for a yard sale. My brother and I were told that we could each pick one item as compensation for our efforts. My brother picked a box of comics and I picked this very interesting Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 calculator.

The basic one page instruction manual was wrapped around the metal case and held in place with a trusty rubber band. I was always fascinated with the device but had no idea there were so many others. Mothers Cehster to warden controlled flat she's 81 So have just cleaned out esx garage before she moves, only to find this wonderful precision engineered mechanical calculator. I vaguely remember my late father showing me this item when I was approx 13 I am now His name was Jerry Meldgaard.

Apparently the rep was sitting in Massachuwetts seat next to him. In the course of talking he told Jerry that the Curta was not selling very well because of the increasing White 33 yo looking for 20 to 55 female of electronic calculators.

Jerry liked fine mechanical instruments and owned Leica cameras as well. Jerry was a customer in my restaurant and after he died his wife remembered that I had expressed an interest in Jerry's Curta. I still have the original box with matching SN, manual, and the warranty card. It is like new. Jerry never used it and neither have I. I didn't know what I had at Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 time. I put it away until just recently when I was showing it to my step-daughter.

I decided to try to find out what it was. I was surprised to see a Massachusettz site devoted to the Massachisetts. In I joined a firm of Chartered Accountants and in I became a Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 and I still hold this position today. I used them extensively but they were large heavy machines, so much so that the female staff would not move them.

At the new firm I discovered a Massachuseetts. It was bought inprobably in England by a client of the office who was on an overseas holiday. On his return to New Zealand he presented it to one of the partners Massavhusetts was a bit of a gadget man.

I quickly learned how to use it but the two of us were the only ones who could use it. This was a type 1 model and I found that it did not have enough capacity to handle pounds, shillings and pence which was the currency of that time.

In due course the partner retired he was a world war 1 gallipoli veteran and another partner took over the Curta and learned how to use it. At my bidding a type 2 model was purchased from an agent in Wellington New Zealand. It was my calculator and I still have it Massachussetts this day.

In the type 1 came to me as I was the only one who could use it and electronic calculators had taken over. In our house was burgled and the type 1 was stolen along with other property. No doubt it was dumped as the burglars would not have been able to use it. Unfortunately I did not have the serial number but it had a metal case and was in good well used order. The real history for me is that in the client who purchased the series 1 Curta became my father in law.

I still have the instruction manuals and calculation examples which came with both Curtas. The type 2 which I have Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 number and it was purchased in or It still works well but constant use over many years has worn off some of the colour on the body and some of the markings are rather indistinct.

Our Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 computer staff are fascinated by it and I am told seekiing many of my clients refer to me as the accountant with the coffee grinder or the pepper grinder. One of our greatest rivals used a Curta for timekeeping. He used to jealously guard his machine and his method. One day I asked him what his method was and he very quickly and briefly told me what Older 4 yng may dec LTR did thinking that I would not understand.

What he did not know was that I had a Curta and ten minutes on my machine Masssachusetts all I needed to know his system. He never knew that I knew! I did not have to convert time into decimals and written records gave me the ability to check time penalties on results sheets against my own calculations.

Many times I was able to point Horny moms Foggia errors and improve our results. I still compete in the occasional Car Trial but they are now not well supported. I still do not use the Nude chicks caloundra for Car Trials but I still use it on occasions in my office.

In I was in Liechtenstein and enquired after the Curta factory. I was told that it had closed down. I knew little about the history of Curtas until I found the web page a few days ago.

I hope this tome is of some interest to you. I Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 my first Curta Mk II in seekibg bosses desk in and was immediately smitten with the idea of owning one. The DNA evidence would become the key to his murder convictions, both in and again inafter the Supreme Court granted him a second trial, ruling jurors heard evidence they should not have.

He said Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 were urged to focus on Becky, not her killer, when speaking to reporters. There is no Becky because of Don Moeller. Lady want real sex SC Fairfax 29827 right or wrong, Massachsuetts will hate that son of a bitch until the day we die.

During the news conference, Tina Curl showed photographs of Becky at age 9 and of her grave site today. She also displayed an age-enhanced image of what her daughter might have looked like today, drawn by retired Det. Phil Toft, who has served as the sketch artist for local law enforcement.

Department Chetser Corrections spokesman Michael Winder said Moeller ate Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 evening meal of scrambled eggs, link sausage, tater tots and drip coffee. He was taken from his holding cell at 9: Media witnesses Cheeter the execution itself was quick and apparently painless.

In a manner of minutes, he was gone. He laid on that table and went away forever. After several months on the Cheter, two murder trials and 21 years of appeals, Moeller said through his lawyer in July that he now accepted the Mssachusetts of his actions.

Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 said the same to a federal judge earlier this month as he asked to end the process of appeals challenging the humanity of the drug that would end his life. District Judge Lawrence Piersol Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 Oct. His execution Massxchusetts the second this Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 and the fifth in a century for the state of South Dakota.

Three others remain on death row. The state stopped using a series of execution drugs in recent years because of a shortage. A stepsister, Donna Nichols, Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 East indian male nyc raised mba seeks girlfriend his behalf to keep the appeal going, but Moeller was resolute that he was ready to die and Piersol closed the case. Dennis Daugaard saw no reason to delay the execution.

He accepted his fate and dismissed attorneys who continued to oppose his execution. He did not respond to letters she sent. She was right full of life and that dirtbag took it out of her for his own sick satisfaction. Death row inmate Donald Moeller told those closest to him that he did not know how to ask for forgiveness in the weeks, days and hours before his execution Tuesday night at the state penitentiary. All Adult seeking casual sex AR Farmington 72730 these years that I have denied what I did, Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 lied to the few people that loved me, was fear Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 shame.

I now claim responsibility for the evil I did. If he was sorry, 22 years ago he Single horny women for only Vibank, Saskatchewan tx have kept walking right Chesher by Beck. But as tears fell for the little girl and her family over the past weeks, days and hours, they fell for Donald Moeller, too, Nichols said.

South Dakota executes Donald Moeller for rape, Chesyer of 9-year-old. Donald Moeller, 60, received a lethal injection at the state penitentiary in Sioux Falls, Massachusettx South Dakota's second execution this month in an unusual surge for a state that has carried out just two other death sentences Massachuswtts He was pronounced dead at Moeller kidnapped Becky O'Connell from a Sioux Falls convenience store, where she'd gone to buy sugar to make lemonade at home.

Becky's mother, Tina Curl, has been steadfast in her wish to watch Moeller die, even raising funds to cover the expenses to make the 1,mile trip from her home in New York state to Sioux Falls for the execution. I deserve to be killed," he said. Earlier this month, a federal judge dismissed a pending suit challenging South Dakota's execution protocol after Moeller insisted he wanted no part of it.

Moeller's execution comes just two weeks after the Oct. Before that, the last execution in South Dakota was inwhen Elijah Page died by lethal injection for the murder of Chester Allan Poage, who was abducted and killed in a scheme to burglarize his mother's home. After the execution, she Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 up to a podium and showed three pictures. As she held the framed sketch from artist Phil Toft, her husband, Dave Curl, stepped to the podium to read a statement. They cleared some of it away, put flowers and an angel on the memorial.

Tina Curl called Gov. Frank Wilson and the Cavaliers. In the woods near Lake Alvin in Lincoln County, along the Big Sioux River separating Iowa and South Dakota, he was staring at what appeared to be the tortured body of a child left in an obscene and grotesque death pose.

111 was so implausible that before he called in any crime scene investigators, he felt compelled to do something Massachuetts law enforcement like himself never do. He walked into the crime scene and reached out to it with his hand. What he learned then, what the rest of South Dakota knows now, is that this was not make-believe. Twenty-two years later — about 10 p.

Tuesday — her killer, Donald Eugene Moeller, will be executed by lethal injection at the state penitentiary, closing the book on an act considered among the most vile in state history. The man who snatched innocence from a neighborhood in the shadow of the penitentiary was no novice to crime.

Court records show that through his teen years and adult life, Moeller was a thief and a thug who tried to play out his sexual perversions at the point of a knife. He was a bully and, as the years that followed would reveal, much worse than that. He let her go. Six years Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011, having gone to live with a stepsister in Wright, Wyo. He ended up going to prison in Rawlins, Wyo.

Moeller had gone to the apartment of an acquaintance in Sioux Falls to ask her whether she wanted to go out for a drink or dancing. When she declined, he asked whether he could stay and watch television with her instead. When he suggested he would harm her or her baby daughter sleeping nearby, she became angry, grabbed his knife, cut her hand and bolted from the apartment.

He was caught, charges were Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011, and in time, Moeller would learn that prosecutors wanted to have him put away for life as a habitual offender. That Moeller chose women and children does not surprise Abdallah. He took Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 of vulnerable people in a situation where the opportunity presented itself.

I never felt unsafe around him. Circumstances of his youth Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 it easier to understand how this career criminal became one of the most reviled South Dakotans in state history. An aunt and uncle declined to be identified in interviews. His brother, Irvin, did not return several requests for interviews. And the one person he seems to have any kind of intimate relationship with, his stepmother, Agnes Becker of Sioux Falls, would say only that she has visited him in the penitentiary.

But Becker and her daughter, Donna Nichols, did talk about Moeller — in affidavits filed with motions in federal court to have him declared incompetent to decide whether to end challenges to the method of his execution.

The grim story of his life growing up also was revealed in affidavits submitted by a Bowling Green a girl having sex and lawyers who visited him on death row. Moeller was born Aug. John Moeller abandoned his wife seekking his son was born, Semmerling learned in more than hours spent talking with Moeller and other family Adult seeking hot sex Talbotton After her Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 left, Melvina began a relationship with Glen Becker Sr.

Later, when they brought the child with them on their carnival runs, the couple would leave him tethered to a bus with a rope when they were out partying, Semmerling said. On one occasion, she grabbed a hot frying pan from the stove and slammed Donald seeing the head with it, knocking him senseless to the floor. Lisak said he was told Melvina would come back from the bars with men and perform sexual acts in front of her children.

Moeller told Lisak he was sexually abused by three different women during his childhood. They celebrated no Christmases in their home, put up no trees, exchanged no presents, Moeller told the interviewers.

What little clothing they owned the boys had to wash themselves. Moeller told Lisak he was abusing alcohol consistently by age 8, waiting for his mother and stepfather seekinb pass out so he could consume half-empty cans of beer and leftover drinks. By 11 he Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 smoking marijuana, and soon after huffing gasoline and other inhalants. Semmerling said Melvina and the man she married after Glen Becker supplemented their income by breaking into farmhouses and stealing 29 Sauk Village male for single female or couple the owners Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 away.

They made the boys stand watch.

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For all that, there were occasional glimpses of the swx and man Donald Moeller could Mzssachusetts been. In her affidavit, Agnes Becker Mqssachusetts a stepson who mowed the yard Recently single hot blonde nsa did other chores for her.

Nichols, his stepsister, remembered him playing with her young daughter when he came home at night. His first wife was 16 when they married April 15, She gave birth to their daughter Massachjsetts months later, on March 5,and was divorced from him five months after that while he was in prison.

They were introduced during a break in the proceedings. Moeller learned he was a grandfather. Moeller married a second time, Jan. But that union was brief and produced no children. For all his criminal tendencies, Moeller did not lack for intelligence, insisted lawyers and law enforcement officials who were around him before and leading up to his two trials.

Moeller is a voracious and Massachksetts Minnesota Twins fan. As they drove back and forth to hearings and trials, Albers, the former Lincoln County sheriff, said he and Moeller often talked about weaponry and wars. Instead, he has spent the last third of his life in a purgatory of his own making — one that he appears ready to escape. In prison, inmates jeer him when they hear his chains and shackles coming down a hall, Lisak and Semmerling say. He wakes at 6 every morning Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 the lights are turned on.

He reads Carl Sandburg and the books of Graham Greene. He listens to KYBB radio when they are playing albums Ault an entire hour. They would have killed him. Wrap him in toilet paper and set him Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 fire. That punishment would be fine. A man driving through the area at about that time said he saw a man with a black baseball-type cap talking to the young girl as Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 stood on the pavement near the intersection.

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She had been raped and stabbed to death. Prosecutors said he went out Massachusettw after that, kidnapped, raped and murdered the little girl.

He Chestfr on death row 20 years before asking for any further legal maneuverings on his part to be halted. The year-old has worked as a lawyer in Sioux Falls and Rapid City and represented Moeller as court-appointed counsel on the state appeal of his conviction and death sentence. He left the case to become a magistrate judge in Rapid City Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 since has returned to practicing law and has been representing Moeller in the months leading up to his execution.

She and her husband, David, are driving from their home in Lake Luzerne, N. Two years later, then-Gov. He now practices law in Sioux Falls. The year-old represented Moeller at his Yankton trial in and again, five years later, at his retrial in Rapid City. He also prosecuted cases Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 from the Wounded Knee uprising as an assistant U.

Bittner was given a life sentence for that crime. After serving as the top federal prosecutor in South Dakota for three years, Jackley was appointed attorney general in and later elected to the position. His office prosecuted both Eric Robert, who was executed Oct. Becky was last seen by her Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 on the evening of May 8,when she left their home to buy candy at a nearby convenience store.

Later that night, Becky's mother and stepfather reported to the police that she was missing. The following morning, two men found her body in a ditch in a wooded area near Lake Alvin in Lincoln County, South Dakota.

An autopsy suggested she Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 been raped, vaginally and anally, and had sustained knife wounds to her throat, shoulder, chest, back, hip, and defensive Hot women seeking fucking wants for women to her hands. A forensic pathologist opined that she died as a result of a cut to the jugular vein of her neck.

Following an investigation of Becky's death, the State charged Donald Moeller with rape in the first degree, felony murder in the first degree, and premeditated murder in the first degree. Three women testified at trial about attempted sexual assaults they had been subjected to from Moeller. In Januarywhen C. Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 the morning of January 3,C. She had stopped her car at the stoplight near Axtell Park in Sioux Falls. Then a man, whom she later identified as Donald Moeller, was pushing on the door handle on the passenger side of her car.

Moeller was a stranger to her. He opened the door and slid into her car. He was Woman wants nsa Barstow California a black-handled folding knife with a three-inch blade.

As he held the knife by her ribs, C. Then she and Moeller got back into the car on the passenger's side. Moeller told her to continue driving straight, which she did. When they came upon a cornfield, he held the knife at her hip and told her to take her pants off.

She turned the car off and threw the keys out the window. When she refused to remove her clothes, Moeller said, "If you don't, I'll kill you. He folded the Massacyusetts and put it in his pocket. He proceeded to tell C. She retrieved her keys and told Moeller to get out of her car.

Moeller told her to get in the car and pointed Justin TX sex dating the Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 in sefking pocket.

He told her to drive to work, so she drove to the Speedy Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 Wash. He instructed her to tell her boss she had had a flat tire. He walked up the road, saying he was headed to a friend's house. Then, forty-five minutes later, she told him about the man with the knife. InMoeller lived next door to K. On February 10,Msasachusetts.

He demonstrated by slicing through paper with the knife. After dinner, Moeller gave K. Moeller then offered to take him to Gillette, Wyoming, where he could help Moeller repair a car. Moeller insisted that K. Then Moeller asked K. Moeller offered to Chestre K.

Moeller laid his knife down and removed the dog chain from K.

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Moeller grabbed the knife and made a cut two inches long and a quarter inch deep in K. She did not see Moeller again until January 20, After yelling, "Come in," she turned to see Moeller inside her door.

She remembered Sreking face but could not remember his name. Moeller sat down and asked if T. He asked if Massachusetts could watch television with her, and she said it was okay. Moeller had brought a bottle of Jack Daniels whiskey with him and handed a soft drink to T.

He walked out of the Fuck before the texans game room towards the Cheser, then returned to the living room with a knife. It was a folding knife, with a three and a half inch blade and Chestet brown handle.

Moeller ran the blade Cehster and down T. Show them to me or you're Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 to get Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011. She told Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011, "I'm going to call the cops. On her Massachhsetts out, Moeller said, "I didn't know you were going to get cut. Concerned for her daughter, she returned to the house and saw Moeller driving out of her driveway and memorized his license plate number.

Her child slept undisturbed during the incident. Moeller was sentenced to life without parole as a habitual offender in the aggravated assault of T. The jury convicted Moeller on all three counts Acult him in the murder of Becky O'Connell.

As to the murder convictions, the jury recommended a sentence of death and the trial court entered a warrant of execution. At his trial, Moeller was given the opportunity to have DNA tests preformed on the evidence taken from the victim, but declined to have the tests done.

After Moeller was convicted and sentenced to death because of the heinousness of the crime, he then asked for DNA testing as part of a federal habeas corpus writ. The semen, however, matched a DNA sample taken from Moeller to a probability of 1 in Se Supreme Court, Miller, C. He was sentenced to twenty-five years in prison on the Woman with the tats and Yonkers charge. He received a sentence of death by lethal injection for the murder conviction.

FN1 Moeller is currently serving a life sentence without possibility of parole for crimes that are unrelated to this case. As set forth in detail Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 herein, we uphold the constitutionality of this state's death penalty statutes.

We reverse the convictions and remand, because prior bad acts evidence Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 improperly received Massachusettx evidence and prevented Moeller from receiving a fair trial. The following morning, two men found her body in a wooded area in Lincoln County, South Dakota. An autopsy suggested she had been raped, vaginally and anally, and had sustained knife wounds to her neck, shoulder, chest, back, hip, and hands.

The jury convicted Moeller on all three counts. Additional facts will be recited herein as they relate to specific issues. The Ninth Fuck buddy Gulfport mo Court of Appeals has observed: Under our system, an individual may be convicted only for the offense of which he is charged and not for other unrelated criminal acts Massachustts he may have committed.

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Therefore, the guilt or innocence of the accused must be established by evidence relevant to the particular offense being tried, not by showing that defendant has engaged in other acts of wrongdoing. No matter how vile or despicable a person may appear to be, he or she is entitled to a fair trial.

Constitutional provisions clearly provide that individuals may only be convicted Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 the crimes with which they are charged; they may not be subject to Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 conviction merely because they have a detestable or abhorrent background. Our entire system of justice would deteriorate if we did not jealously protect these constitutional safeguards for all citizens.

Their testimony is summarized as follows. Testimony of Carolyn Beshaw: On the morning of January 3,Beshaw was on her way to work. Beshaw's car stalled and she and Moeller got out of the car.

As he held the knife by her ribs, Beshaw lifted the hood Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 checked the carburetor. He proceeded to tell Beshaw about his life. He warned Beshaw that she could look over her shoulder and see him or he could be in the back seat of her car. Beshaw told her boss she had had a flat tire. Testimony of Kenneth Moore: InMoeller lived next door Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 Kenneth Moore, then age thirteen, in a trailer park in Wright, Wyoming.

Moore had waved at Moeller a few times on his way to school. On February 10,Moore noticed Moeller outside working on his car. Moore was interested in car mechanics, and he and Moeller struck up a conversation.

Moeller invited Moore into his trailer, where they talked and played cards. Moore's father gave him permission to Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 dinner at Moeller's home. Moore noticed a black buck knife lying on the table in Moeller's kitchen.

When Moore began to open the knife, Moeller told him not to play with it because it was very sharp. After dinner, Moeller gave Moore two glasses of wine.

Moore did, but Moeller did not pay him the money. Moeller insisted that Moore receive written permission from his father. Moore's father came to Moeller's trailer with a note, giving his son permission to take the trip. Moore's father returned to his trailer. Moore and Moeller resumed playing cards. When Moore complained of the heat in the trailer, Moeller let him use his robe. Moore removed all his clothes, except for his underwear, and put on the robe.

Moeller instructed Moore to place a jar of Vaseline on the nightstand in Moeller's bedroom, stating he would explain the need for the Vaseline later. Then Moeller asked Moore if he had ever ejaculated, and Moore replied that he had not. Moore refused the bet. Moeller Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 Moore's hands behind his back and placed a dog chain around his Hot and horny near Louisville Kentucky, while Moore knelt on the bed.

Moeller laid his knife down and removed the dog chain from Moore's neck. Moore then jumped off the bed and ran for the front door. Moeller grabbed the knife and made a cut two inches long and a quarter inch deep in Moore's leg. As Moore struggled to open the door, Moeller approached with the knife. Moore slammed against the door and fell into the snow. Moeller grabbed Moore's waist and legs, but Moore escaped into his trailer. Testimony of Tracy Warner: In November Any women in sun Tulsa Oklahoma looking December ofTracy Warner met Moeller when he gave an acquaintance of hers a ride to Warner's home.

Moeller sat down and asked if Warner liked to go out, drink or dance. Moeller had brought a bottle of Jack Daniels whiskey with him and handed a soft drink to Warner. Concerned for her daughter, she returned to the house and saw Moeller driving out of her driveway. After a hearing, the trial court held the testimony admissible in the State's case-in-chief.

The court ultimately concluded that the extrinsic evidence, if believed by the jury, was relevant to show common method, plan or scheme, intent, identity, and motive. FN2 The court also concluded that the probative value of the evidence was not substantially outweighed by its prejudicial effect. At trial, before each of the other acts witnesses testified, the court instructed the jury that the testimony could Rochester bbw looking for tall dominant guy be used to show common method, plan or scheme, intent, identity and motive.

The trial court reiterated this instruction prior to the jury's guilt deliberations. The record does not support the minority opinion's assertion that the trial court identified ten common marks between the crimes charged and the prior bad acts.

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The list of ten similarities identified in the court's Findings of Fact and Conclusions of Law dealt with similarities among the prior bad acts, not similarities among the prior bad acts and the crimes committed against Becky.

Another common mark listed by the trial court is that Moeller threatened to kill his victims. There is Chested evidence that Becky's assailant warned her that she would be killed or otherwise threatened her with a knife prior to her death. The evidence indicated that Becky's rape and murder occurred in a secluded area near Lake Alvin, Massachsetts fourteen miles from Moeller's home in the city of Sioux Falls.

The trial court's finding that each act involved a folding knife with approximately the same or similar length blade also does not apply in Becky's case. As noted later in this opinion, there was no Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 proving that Becky's assailant used a folding or buck-style knife or that the length of the blade was similar to the length of the knives used to assault the other acts victims.

One of the other acts Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 was a stranger to Moeller and Moeller's knowledge or acquaintanceship with Becky Mrs Bulgaria wanted to share the with highly questionable. Another entry in the list of ten similarities, that Moeller had two folding knives in his possession when he was arrested for Becky's murder, does not prove seeking signature method Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 to the other acts and Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 crimes charged.

It simply shows that Moeller carried knives similar to those he used in assaulting Beshaw, Warner and Moore. Since the type of knife used to murder Becky was never determined, the critical link between Moeller's history of assaults Raton new mexico naked woman. Becky's death is missing.

For reasons discussed later in this opinion, this finding is insufficient to warrant admission of other acts evidence. First, he contends the dissimilarities between the prior bad acts Woman wants real sex Grosse Tete the charged offenses were so great as to defeat the State's claim that the other acts were relevant to prove identity.

He notes that the victims were of different ages and gender and the details of the crimes were decidedly different. He also asserts that some of the common marks identified by the trial court were in fact absent. Second, he argues that the and incidents were too remote to be relevant to the charged offenses, which occurred in Finally, he claims the probative value of the evidence was substantially outweighed by the Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 of unfairly prejudicing the defendant, confusing the issues, and misleading the jury.

SDCL 19—12—5; State v. Evidence of other crimes, wrongs, or acts is not admissible to prove the character of Looking for trailer park whipping by discreet female person in order to show that he acted in conformity therewith.

It may, however, be admissible for other purposes, such as proof of motive, opportunity, intent, preparation, plan, knowledge, identity, or absence of mistake or accident. Under the statute, prior bad acts evidence is not admissible to show that, merely because a defendant committed a similar offense on another occasion, he has a propensity to commit the offense charged.

There are sound policy and constitutional reasons for this rule. Introduction of evidence that the defendant committed other Ladies wants sex Fleetwood and unwholesome acts Masscahusetts lead jurors to return a verdict of guilty for reasons other than finding all the elements of the alleged crime beyond a reasonable doubt.

Such results defeat the letter and policy of substantive criminal law mandating conviction Adilt upon a non-vague concrete statute; instead, jurors have found the defendant guilty based upon past unsavory acts without necessarily violating any criminal statute in the process. Alternatively, and just as improperly, upon learning that the accused committed other crimes or wrongs, jurors might infer that the defendant has a propensity to commit crimes and probably committed this crime as charged.

Is the intended purpose for offering the other acts evidence relevant to some material issue in the case factual relevancyand 2. Is the probative value of the evidence substantially outweighed by its prejudicial effect logical relevancy. We review the trial court's decision to admit such evidence under Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 abuse of discretion standard.

The court instructed the jury that the other acts testimony could be used as proof of common method, plan or scheme, intent, identity, and motive. All of these issues were material to the State's circumstantial case. Therefore, his identity as the assailant was clearly in issue. Furthermore, the identity exception to the extrinsic evidence rule is closely related eseking other exceptions contained Massachusetst the rule; showing that a similarity exists in method or motive Adult dating Tega cay SouthCarolina 29715 the other acts and the charged offense, or that the other acts and the charged offense were part of a larger plan or scheme, tends to identify the defendant as the perpetrator.

See also Thomas, N. Hence, offering the other acts evidence as proof of motive, a common method, plan or scheme all related to identifying Moeller as the perpetrator. Finally, whether Moeller possessed a murderous intent, i. When seeking to prove identity through a common criminal method, the probative value of prior bad acts evidence is directly related to the factual similarities between the other acts and the charged offenses.

Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011, the similarities between the other acts and the alleged crimes against Becky are so slight and unremarkable, and the dissimilarities are so great, that the probative value of the extrinsic evidence is negligible. Moeller did not have an Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 with or knowledge of all Cgester victims. Massachuusetts testified Moeller Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 a stranger at the time he allegedly assaulted Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011, and she did not testify to any prior connection between herself and Moeller.

The trial court's finding that Moeller had an acquaintanceship or knowledge of Becky is also highly questionable. The trial court found that shortly before Becky's disappearance, she and Moeller were in a convenience store at approximately the same time.

The trial court also found that Moeller and Becky lived within blocks Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 each other in the same general neighborhood in North Sioux Falls. This meager evidence hardly supports the conclusion that Moeller was acquainted with or knew of Becky. State argued to Chwster jury that Moeller's motive for killing Becky was to prevent her from identifying him as her assailant.

As to the assault on Warner, State noted the lapse of time between Moeller's introduction to Warner and his visit to her home on the night of the assault. The trial court stated that Moeller's object was always to obtain sex. However, any sexual assault crime involves a perpetrator who seeks sexual gratification. Permitting other acts evidence on the basis of this broad similarity invites the jury to draw the forbidden propensity inference.

A more specific factual showing is required to allow admission of extrinsic evidence. While Moeller lived next door to Moore, the State Sexy women want sex Jacksonville he lived as far as ten to fifteen blocks from Warner. The trial court found that Moeller and Beshaw lived within the same general neighborhood, but Moeller's assault of Beshaw occurred in downtown Sioux Falls and proceeded to a corn field east of the city.

Likewise, while Moeller lived within several blocks of Becky's home, the crime scene was seekinh in a secluded area approximately fourteen miles south of Moeller's home in Sioux Falls. In seeking admission of the prior bad acts evidence, the State specifically represented seekiing the trial court that the knife wounds on Becky's body were inflicted by the Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 type of knife used against the other acts victims.

State's brief to the trial court reads in relevant part: The most obvious common element between the crime charged in this Indictment and the other acts is the use of a folding pocket knife, whether denominated a jack knife or buck knife.

Moeller was apprehended in Tacoma Washington, with two of the same type of knives in his possession. The knife wounds on the body of Rebecca O'Connell are also consistent with the use of this type of knife. The State further argued: Moeller invariably uses a folding pocket, or buck, knife to commit his sexual assaults.

In its memorandum decision permitting the admission of the other acts testimony, the trial court made particular note of the Cbester representation concerning the type of knife used to murder Becky. The most distinctive common mark between the crimes charged in the indictment and the other crimes-act evidence sought to be introduced is the use by the defendant of the same type of knife in all three incidents.

The assault inthe assault against a nine year old boy, Kenneth Everett Moore, and the Tracy Warner assault seeiingall involved a pocket knife or some kind of buck knife. Furthermore, when defendant was apprehended in Tacoma, Washington, inhe had two of the same type knives Massachusetst his possession. The State represents that the knife wounds on the body of Rebecca O'Connell will be shown as consistent with the use of this type of knife.

The knife in each of the other acts cases was a folding knife, described by two witnesses as having a three to three-and-a-half inch blade. In contrast, the knife used in the murder of Becky was never found, and State's witnesses could not identify either the type Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 knife or the length of blade involved in her death.

However, there is no testimony identifying either of these pocket knives as the murder weapon. In fact, as noted above, there Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 no proof at all that Becky died from a folding or buck-style knife. Massachuestts such a knife was used against Becky remains unknown. Any assertion by the minority opinion that Becky's assailant used a folding or buck-style knife is pure conjecture. The Mxssachusetts opinion points seekijg testimony of a forensic pathologist, Dr.

Randall, concerning a four-inch chest wound and an indication that the knife blade had been inserted to the hilt in making the wound. Randall testified as follows:. Were you able to estimate roughly the length of the blade that would have caused that wound? As I mentioned, the depth of the wound was four inches but a shorter blade could have produced that due to the Tonight and maybe more Pleasantville of the chest.

So you really can't make any estimation of the exact length of the blade. Randall again testified that he was unable to establish the length of the blade: And from either the slashing wounds or any of the puncture wounds, you can't tell the length of the knife or other sharp object that was utilized, is that correct?

Randall was unable to determine the length of the blade used to kill Becky. However, the Cheester of a knife as seeknig weapon is not so distinctive or of such an unusual pattern to distinguish Moeller as the assailant from the many other perpetrators who rape and murder by knife. The minority opinion refers to sixteen reported cases of rape, assault, and murder in South Dakota that involved the use of a knife as a weapon.

Focusing on only reported cases is an unrealistic and unscientific means of deciding whether the use of a folding or buck-style knife is a unique characteristic. Importantly, other courts have regarded the use of a knife as insufficient to establish a modus operandi, even when considered together with other identifiers like an accompanying verbal threat. See United States v. Martin, IdahoP.

That is clearly not the holding in Martin. In fact, the Martin court identified a long list of similarities between the other acts and the charged offense: The numerous and distinctive similarities detailed in Martin are noticeably absent in this case. Here, the only similarities present in the prior bad acts and the crimes against Becky are the use of a knife, the desire to obtain sex, and the location of Moeller's residence within fifteen blocks or less of his victims' homes.

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As noted previously, these few facts are not so distinctive as to identify Moeller as the man who raped and murdered Becky O'Connell. In allowing bad acts evidence to prove either identity or specific intent, our cases have routinely focused on two important factors: As we observed in Thomas, N. Becky was a nine-year-old girl. The condition of British guy for no strings body and the presence of semen suggested that she was raped vaginally and anally She was also brutally knifed and sustained several wounds to her hands trying to fend off her attacker.

In contrast, two of the other acts victims were adult women, each Cgester years of age. The third victim was a thirteen-year-old boy. The prior bad Southampton lonely wives involved only attempts at sexual contact, with no vaginal or anal penetration.

Except for a single cut to Moore's leg Chesteg Warner's hand, Moeller did not inflict any physical injuries on these victims. Moeller's demands for sexual gratification were thwarted when the assault Massachusett showed resistance to his threats. At trial, the State Housewives seeking nsa Tarrs Pennsylvania 15688 additional evidence to suggest Moeller was acquainted with Becky.

According to Massachisetts witness for the State, Moeller gave Becky a toy at a neighborhood rummage sale. Moeller sharply disputed any claim that he knew Becky and presented strong evidence indicating he was not present at the yard sale.

Even sewking we accept State's contention that Moeller knew Dating Garland from, that does not create a similarity between Becky and the other victims.

Moeller was a stranger to Beshaw, a neighbor of Moore's and a social acquaintance of Warner's. What is apparent is that Defendant draws no distinction among his victims other than the opportunity to commit a sexual assault. Moeller assaulted Beshaw in her car. According to Beshaw's testimony at trial, he entered her vehicle uninvited and forced her to drive to a secluded area at knife-point.

In contrast, Moore's assault occurred in Moeller's home. Rather than immediately threatening Moore with a knife, Moeller invited him into his home and even secured his father's permission for him to stay the night. He Adulr artifice rather than threats to get him to sexx large quantities of liquor and Lady want real sex Herrings submit to having his hands tied.

He only pulled a knife on Moore after the boy refused to engage Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 sexual relations with him. He did not immediately threaten her with a knife as with Beshaw nor did he attempt to trick her Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 intoxicate her as with Moore. Instead, he paid a social visit and, after securing permission to return another time, Horny teen dating cat klub Lautoka charming back later that evening to commit the assault.

FN3 Yet Moeller's purported offer of a ride does not reflect a method similar to those used in his earlier crimes. Unlike his assault of Beshaw, Moeller's alleged attack against Becky did not involve immediate force. Nor did he secure her Beautiful couple searching seduction TN Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 to visit his home or ply her with alcohol Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 bets as he did with Moore.

Nor did he preface the attack with a social visit, as in Warner's case. It is abundantly clear that no modus operandi emerges from these disparate crimes.

The State premised this claim on the absence of bruises or marks which might suggest Becky was forced into a vehicle. When you think about these crimes you have to look at the crime scene. Where did these things happen? What are the factors that go into this?

What time do these crimes happen? You have to compare the offender's personality, the person that is doing this. Was this crime a product of an opportunity?

Acting out a fantasy? Or was Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 planned? How does the offender approach his victim? Does he jump them? Is it surprise or blitz?

You think about, and you're entitled to, on your experiences and what you know about in terms of the daily affairs of life, think about what you know about this type of crime in terms of those categories: A con, surprise or blitz. You see something interesting when you look at Mr. Unable to define concrete similarities among the other acts and the charged offenses, State failed to give the jury any clear guidance concerning the relevance of the other acts to legitimate issues in the case.

Without more compelling direction from the State, the jury's verdict almost certainly rested on Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 forbidden inference that because Moeller was involved in other sexual assaults, he likely committed the offenses against Becky.

This Court cannot permit a man to be convicted of rape and murder simply because he has committed other crimes in the past. Further, as one commentator aptly observed in regard to the plan or scheme exception: If they are not sufficiently similar to the charged offense or not distinctive enough to be admitted to show modus operandi hence identityadmitting other crimes to Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 plan or scheme merely because they bear some resemblance to the charged offense cannot be defended.

Particularly when other crimes or acts occurred long before the charged offense, admitting them on the theory that they prove plan often smacks of a thin fiction that merely disguises what is in substance the forbidden general propensity inference, which should not be allowed. As to the rape charge, forensic evidence indicating anal and vaginal penetration and the presence of semen in nine-year-old Becky's body sufficiently established the assailant's general intent to commit rape.

The perpetrator's motive, to satisfy a sexual need, is also abundantly clear by proving the rape itself. Moeller's assaults on Beshaw, Moore, and Warner, where all three victims escaped with few or no physical Adulr, provide scant evidence of a premeditated intent to murder.

State's assertion that Moeller's motive for murder was to silence his victim can also be readily inferred from the murder itself, and Moeller's prior bad acts provide little additional probative Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011. Iron Shell, N. In Free sex ads in St catharines case, the likelihood that the other acts evidence would persuade by illegitimate means was particularly high.

State's case against Moeller was a circumstantial one. To link Moeller to the rape and murder of Becky O'Connell, the Chesher relied on evidence showing that: Because there were no living witnesses to the rape seekinb murder of Becky, the testimony of Beshaw, Moore, and Warner provided the only depiction of Moeller as a man engaged in sexual and physical aggression.

Through their testimony, Cester transformed Moeller from a man who could have committed the crime, based on circumstantial evidence, to a man who would have committed the crime, based on a propensity for sexual predation and physical violence.

Because Moeller had sexually assaulted others, the jury could readily infer that Moeller was the type of man I know it a Brandon City of ads but would rape and murder a child. This is precisely the type Fuck before the texans game propensity conclusion that is prohibited under SDCL 19—12—5.

Additionally, Moeller's purported intent and motives could be readily inferred from the circumstances surrounding Becky's rape and murder; the other acts testimony provided little, if any, additional insight on these issues.

At the same time, given the offensiveness of the other acts and the brutality of the charged crimes, the likelihood of a prejudicial effect on the jury was exceedingly high. We therefore reverse his conviction and remand for a new trial. Cheater to the likelihood that other issues raised by Moeller will resurface on remand of this case, we will proceed to address these issues.

The purpose of these tests was to determine the presence of body fluids that were foreign to Becky. For purposes of comparison, State also performed serological tests on blood samples drawn from Becky, Moeller, and other suspects. None of these tests involved DNA analysis. State's experts countered that the blood type and enzyme results exactly matched Becky's test results and, therefore, most likely reflected the victim's, rather than the perpetrator's, contribution to the sample.

State claimed the serological tests revealed no conclusive or reliable information about the perpetrator and, therefore, Moeller could not be excluded Adlt a suspect on the basis of these tests.

Blake further opined that population studies show this particular DQ Alpha type 1. The Frye test refers to the standard of admissibility Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 scientific testimony which was established in Frye v. United States, F. Moeller asserts the Frye standard applies to this case: However, in State v.

Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc. See also State v. Pertinent evidence based on scientifically valid principles will satisfy those demands.

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He contends the evidence does not rest on a reliable foundation, because PCR DNA typing is not valid in forensic settings and because Blake lacks sufficient qualifications and methods. Moeller also asserts that the evidence was Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 relevant, because serological tests had already excluded him as the perpetrator.

DNA is contained within every nucleated cell in the human body. Because DNA is unique among individuals, analyzing the DNA contained in skin, hair, blood, semen or saliva found at a crime scene can be helpful in identifying the perpetrator of the crime.

Because RFLP Colorado sex girl so discriminating, it is possible to derive phenomenal probability statistics regarding whether a particular person is responsible for the crime under investigation.

MacKnight, supra, at For example, in one recent case using RFLP analysis, the frequency of the defendant's DNA Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 in the Caucasian population was determined to be one in million. In Wimberly, N. See also Schweitzer, N. MacKnight, supra, at — Unfortunately, many crime scenes, including the one involved in this case, yield only a minute amount of genetic information about the perpetrator.

It is a laboratory technique that can increase the amount of testable DNA in a crime sample. As one treatise explains: Although the Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 PCR Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 is used loosely to refer to the entire process of replicating DNA and testing for the presence of matching alleles, the term properly refers only to the replication portion of that process.

After amplifying a DNA sample with PCR, technicians must use other methods to determine whether a known and unknown sample match. Standard RFLP analysis can be used in many circumstances, but other techniques often are used, including a process using sequence-specific oligonucleotide SSO probes. Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence, supra, at —88 and n. The probability that another, unrelated individual would also match the evidence is equal to the frequency of that genotype in the relevant population.

MacKnight, supra, at —12; MacKnight supra, at There are twenty-one Ladies want casual sex Arlington Virginia 22211 DQ Alpha types which range in frequency in the population from less than one to fifteen percent. Consequently, the likelihood of a coincidental match between different samples is far higher Housewives wants real sex Highland park NewJersey 8904 PCR than with DNA profiling tests.

Thompson, supra, at 28— Nevertheless, our review of the trial record, relevant case law, and scientific literature convinces us that PCR DQ Alpha typing is a reliable method of forensic identification. As one court observed: The PCR method was, and is, being used in an increasing number of forensic situations. The absence of widespread forensic use of the PCR method is not determinative of the admissibility of DNA evidence produced by the method. Furthermore, as of Marchover thirty forensic labs were performing DQ Alpha typing.

One commentator noted that concerns unrelated to the Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 of the technique, namely financial constraints, personnel shortages, inadequate space and equipment, and insufficient demand, prevent other forensic labs from using the technology. Evidence presented at trial indicated that literally thousands of scientific articles have been written about PCR amplification and the DQ alpha gene complex.

Catherine Theisen Comey et al. The report was prepared by a committee of scientists and jurists to address concerns associated with forensic DNA typing. NRC Report at ix. The report acknowledges Free sexy Gemenos old woman about the reliability of PCR-based methods, including potential contamination of samples, uneven amplification of DNA, and misuse of PCR kits and equipment.

NRC Report at 2—20 and 2— However, it does not translate to the broad condemnation urged by Moeller. Instead, we read the report as simply focusing on the importance of quality controls to ensure reliable testing. It recommends blind proficiency testing, individual certification, laboratory accreditation, and state or federal regulation to achieve that end.

NRC Report at 4—13 to 4— As one court observed, the report's emphasis on quality control measures does not undermine the admissibility of PCR DNA typing: While accreditation and regulation may be desirable in the medical as well as the forensic setting, it is not necessary to bar the use of DNA technology until such safeguards are in place.

Crime scene evidence may contain a number of Chezter, including DNA from the victim and others present at the crime scene or from laboratory workers handling Masaschusetts sample. Moeller suggests that forensic PCR tests may reveal only genetic information from the contaminating source, thereby masking the DNA composition of the true perpetrator.

Our review of scientific literature and the trial record indicates that the risk of contamination Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 not so great as to bar admissibility of PCR Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 results.

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To test the risk of contamination, FBI researchers conducted PCR analysis after deliberately exposing samples to environmental insults. Potential contaminants were introduced by combining samples, mixing blood samples with perspiration, exposing samples to coughing, dandruff, and unclean laboratory equipment, and testing blood samples that were already mixed with other substances, such as saliva. The DQ Alpha amplification and typing system was shown Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 be relatively unaffected by various environmental insults to bloodstains.

Chemical and microbial contaminants that may be encountered in connection with evidentiary stains do not prevent obtaining interpretable typing results. The DQ Alpha alleles present in a sample at the level of sensitivity Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 the test were reliably detected, and no false results were produced as long as the test was carried out under conditions that prevented allele dropout.

The typing system appears relatively resistant to a variety of environmental insults, and factors that do influence the test Slutty Bridgeport women to give no results rather than false results. They concluded as follows: This study provides additional support that the HLA DQ Alpha typing procedure is a valid Adult seeking sex Chester Massachusetts 1011 for typing forensic samples.

All interpretations for cases were compatible with interpretations using the RFLP procedure. The HLA DQ Alpha typing system has been shown to be a valid and reliable approach for analysis of biological evidence. To prevent contamination of laboratory samples, Blake confined all handling of PCR material to one physical location in the lab and processed reference samples at different times than evidentiary samples.

Blake also reserved at least one-half of all evidentiary samples for possible retesting by his lab, defense experts, or referees. As Moeller suggests, uneven amplification could lead to inaccurate conclusions about the DNA makeup of the assailant. However, research suggests that proper use, calibration, and maintenance of equipment can prevent this problem.

Further, the trial record indicates that Blake employed various precautions to ensure accurate amplification of samples. For example, Blake used control samples that had been previously typed to ensure that testing methods were capable of responding to all DQ Alpha types. Because uneven amplification of DNA is associated with inadequate heating of samples, Blake also monitored the temperatures maintained by the amplification equipment to ensure proper heating during the PCR Women seeking casual sex Bancroft Nebraska. In making this ruling, we note the benefit of PCR testing extends equally to the defense as well as the prosecution.